Keywords: shadow economy, market flexibility, price setting, equilibrium, labour market, construction industry


The article analyses labour market flexibility in the context of the shadow economy. The main research problem is devoted to the flexibility of the construction labour market in relation to the level of labourers who work in a country’s shadow economy. The following hypothesis was adopted: Flexibility of the labour market for the construction industry decreases with an increase in the level of the shadow economy. The MIMIC approach was used to calculate the level of the shadow economy in a group of selected countries, divided into three categories. The first category includes countries with a relatively low level of shadow economy (less than 15% of their GDP). The second group contains a level starting from 15 to 25% of their GDP, while the third group has a shadow economy that exceeds 25% of GDP. The Pearson correlation index was applied in order to measure the coefficient level between market flexibility and the size of the shadow economy. The flexibility of the labour market was calculated as the change of unemployment caused by the change of construction industry output. The research proved that the correlation between market flexibility and the shadow economy is significant. This is due to the fact that the Pearson index reached the level of 0.866, which means that whenever the shadow economy increases, the labour market flexibility of the construction industry decreases.


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