Keywords: convergence, Europe 2020 strategy, DEA approach


Increase in convergence of the European Union countries has been focal for the European Union leaders, from the very beginning. The aim of the study is to examine whether any social convergence occurred in the EU-28 from 2010 to 2016, in the context of the implementation of the recommendations and the social policy objectives formulated under the Europe 2020 strategy. This article is based on an overview of the literature on the subject and the statistics of Eurostat. The methods of assessing the effectiveness of objects is DEA and sigma convergence. It is a new approach to convergence measurement based on the assessment of the efficiency diversification of the European Union countries and it has clearly been the value added to the analyses conducted so far. The obtained results in the scope of the estimation of the effectiveness were then compared to the existing results produced with the use of the methods generally recognized and employed in the literature. Conclusions were presented in the final part of the study.


Download data is not yet available.


Adamczyk-Łojewska, G. (2011). Problemy konwergencji i dywergencji ekonomicznej na przykładzie krajów Unii Europejskiej, w tym Polski [Problems of economic convergence and divergence on the example of the European Union countries, including Poland]. Ekonomista, 4(16), 57-76.

Bal-Domańska, B. 2009. Ekonometryczna analiza sigma i beta konwergencji regionów Unii Europejskiej [Econometric Analysis of Sigma and Beta Convergence in the European Union Regions]. Prace naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu. Ekonometria, 26, 11-23.

Barro, R., Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992). Convergence, Journal of Political Economy, 100, 223-251.

Barros, C.P., Mascarenhas, M.J. 2005. Technical and allocative efficiency in a chain of small hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24(3), 415-436.

Batóg, J. (2010). Konwergencja dochodowa w krajach Unii Europejskiej. Analiza ekonometryczna. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, 44-68.

Europe 2020 - The strategy for achieving the goals of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the coming years. Retrieved from [accessed 12.01.2018].

Eurostat (2018). Retrieved from [accessed 08.02. 2018].

Głodowska, A. (2013). Konwergencja dochodowa i technologiczna państw Unii Europejskiej w latach 2000-2011. Nierówności społeczne a wzrost gospodarczy. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Rzeszowie, 30, 40-52.

Guzik, B. (2009). Podstawowe modele DEA w badaniu efektywności gospodarczej i społecznej. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu.

Kumar, S., Gulati R. 2008. An Examination of Technical, Pure Technical, and Scale Efficiencies in Indian Public Sector Banks using Data Envelopment Analysis. Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 1(2), 33-69.

Łaźniewska, E., Górecki, T., Chmielewski, R. (2011). Konwergencja regionalna. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Poznaniu, 66-73.

Markowska-Przybyła, U. (2011). Integracja a konwergencja realna. Konwergencja regionalna w Polsce według klasycznych i alternatywnych metod badań [Integration versus real convergence. Regional convergence in Poland according to classical and alternative methods of research]. Ekonomia, 4 (16), 77-96.

Niezbędnik statystyczny (2015). Retrieved from, 138 [accessed 10.02.2018].

Sathye, M. (2001). X-Efficiency in Australian Banking: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Banking and Finance, 25(3), 613-630.

How to Cite
Wronowska, G., & Rosiek, J. (2019). SOCIAL CONVERGENCE IN THE EU-28 COUNTRIES IN THE LIGHT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPE 2020 STRATEGY. THE DEA APPROACH. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 18(3), 111-119.